编辑者： 发布时间：2017-11-03 13:56:45
古大槐树，又称洪洞大槐树，位于洪洞县城西北二公里的贾村西侧的大槐树公园内，这里洪洞虽然没有什么宏伟的建筑，但是不论严寒的冬天，还是酷热的炎夏，游客络绎不绝，有的赋诗题词，抒发“饮水思源”之幽情，有的仰望古槐，盘桓眷恋，久久不肯离去。Ancient locust, also known as locust Hongtong, located two kilometers northwest of Hongdong county west of the village Jia locust park, although there is nothing here Hongdong magnificent building, but regardless of the winter cold or hot summer, tourists flock, and some verse in the inscription, to express the "drink from the source" of times past, some look guhuai, linger cherish for a long time refused to leave.
元朝末年，元政府连年对外用兵，对内实行民族压迫，加之黄淮流域水灾不断，饥荒频仍，终于激起连绵十余年的红巾军起义。元政府予以残暴的镇压，争域夺地的殊死之战时有发生，两淮、山东、河北、河南百姓十亡七八。Yuan Dynasty, Yuan government use military force in successive years, domestic implementation of national oppression, coupled with the Huang-Huai River Valley continued to flood, famine frequently, finally rolling over ten years of red scarves sparked the uprising. Element to be brutal government repression, won in the desperate struggle of the domain occur in wartime, Salt, Shandong, Hebei, Henan, killed 10 people, seven or eight元末战乱的 创伤未及医治，明初“靖难之役”又接踵而至。冀、鲁、豫、皖诸地深受其害，几成无人之地。在元末战乱时，蒙古地主武装察罕贴木儿父子统治的“表里山河”——山西，却是另外一种景象，相对显得安定，风调雨顺，连年丰收，较之于相邻诸省，山西经济繁荣，人丁兴旺。About inadequate treatment of war wounds Late Yuan, Ming and the beginning of "Battle of Jing Nan" to follow. Hebei, Shandong, Henan, Anhui and all to suffer, is almost no man's land. When the war in the late Yuan Dynasty, Mongolia, the landlord posted armed Chahan wooden child father and son rule "table mountains and rivers" - Shanxi, but it is another sight, seem relatively stable, good weather, bumper harvests year after year, than in the neighboring provinces, Shanxi economic prosperity, flourishing population.再者，外省也有大量难民流入山西，致使山西成了人口稠密的地区。明朝灭亡元朝后为了巩固新政权和发展经济，从洪武初年至永乐十五年，五十余年间组织了八次大规模的移民活动。Furthermore, there are a large number of refugees to other provinces of Shanxi, Shanxi result became densely populated areas. After the demise of the Yuan Dynasty Ming Dynasty in order to consolidate the new regime and economic development, from early years to the Wing-lok, 15 Hongwu, the 50 years between the organization of the eight large-scale migration
晋南是山西人口稠密之处，而洪洞又是当时晋南最大，人口最多的县。据记载，明朝时在洪洞城北二华里的贾村西侧有一座广济寺，寺院宏大，殿宇巍峨，僧众很多，香客不绝。Southern Shanxi Shanxi densely populated area while it was the South of Shanxi Hongdong the largest and most populous county. According to records, the Ming Dynasty in Hongdong li Jia village north west of the Second has a Guangji Temple, temple grand, majestic temples, many monks, pilgrims stream寺旁有一棵“树身数围，荫遮数亩’”的汉槐，车马大道从树荫下通过。汾河滩上的老鹞在树上构窝筑巢，星罗棋布，甚为壮观。明朝政府在广济寺设局驻员集中办理移民，大槐树下就成了移民集聚之地。Temple next to a "tree trunk a few around, a few acres of shade cover, '" Han Huai, traveling by road from the shade of a tree. Fen River to check the old harrier nest in a tree nest structure, dotted, very spectacular. Ming government set up in Guangji Temple Board members concentrated in immigration, emigration became the next locust gathering place
晚秋时节，槐叶凋落，老鸦窝显得十分醒目。移民们临行之时，凝眸高大的古槐，栖息在树杈间的老鹞不断地发出声声哀鸣，令别离故土的移民潸然泪下，频频回首，不忍离去，最后只能看见大槐树上的老鹤窝。Late autumn season, Cassia leaf litter, Tulipa fossa is extremely eye-catching. When immigrants leaving, gazing tall guhuai, perched among the branches to keep the old Harrier issued repeatedly moan, tears that leave their native land of immigrants, frequently looking back, could not bear to leave, only to see the last locust on old crane nest为此，大槐树和老鹤窝就成为移民惜别家乡的标志。“问我祖先何处来，山西洪洞大槐树。祖先故里叫什么，大槐树下老鸹窝。”这首民谣数百年来在我国许多地区广为流传。To this end, large cranes nest on Ash and the old home farewell as a sign of migration. "I asked where their ancestors came, Shanxi Hongtong Ash. What ancestors hometown, under the Laogua locust nest." This ballad hundreds of years in widely circulated in many parts of our country.
明初从山西洪洞等地迁出的移民主要分布在河南、河北、山东、北京、安徽、江苏、湖北等地，少部分迁往陕西、甘肃、宁夏地区。Early Ming Hongtong Shanxi and other places to move out from immigration mainly in Henan, Hebei, Shandong, Beijing, Anhui, Jiangsu, Hubei and other places, a few moved to Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia.从山西迁往上述各地的移民，后又转迁到云南、四川、贵州、新疆及东北诸省。如此长时间大范围有组织的大规模迁徙，在我国历史上是罕见的，而将一方之民散移各地，仅此一例而已。Moved from the immigrants from all parts of Shanxi, then switch to move to Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Xinjiang and Northeast provinces. So long a wide range of large-scale organized migration, is rare in our history, but will move one of the people scattered all over, only this one case only.明政府推行移民垦荒振兴农业的政策，虽然其目的是巩固封建王朝的统治，但客观上缓和了社会矛盾，调动了农民的生产积极性，使农业生产逐步得到恢复，边防巩固，社会安定。Ming Government's immigration policy of reclamation revitalization of agriculture, although aimed at consolidating the rule of the feudal dynasty, but objectively mitigate contradictions in society, Tiaodong the enthusiasm in production, making agricultural production gradually restored, border defense, and social stability.
民国二年，宦游山东的贾村人景大启告老还乡后，集资修建了碑亭、茶室等。碑亭建在原来的古大槐树处，亭虽不大，但雕梁画栋，飞檐斗拱，精巧玲珑。亭中竖立青石碑一座，刻有“古大槐树处”五个隶体大字。Republic of years, been an official grand Shandong Jia Kai grow old villagers after returning home, financing the construction of a tablet pavilion, tea and so on. Beiting ancient building in the original locust Office Pavilion not large, but the carved beams, cornices, brackets, compact exquisite. The booth is erected a blue stone, engraved with "ancient locust office" subordinate body of the five characters.碑亭背面，刻有碑文，简述移民事略。亭前靠西一侧，建有茶室三间，以备寻根游人歇憩品茗，茶室楣匾题字为“饮水思源”。碑南二十余米处建有牌坊一座，横额雕刻着“誉延嘉树”，另一面刻有“荫庇群生”。八十年代初，洪洞县政府重修并扩建了大槐树公园。Beiting back, engraved with the inscription, brief immigrant's Biography. Plaza by the Western side of the teahouse built three to prepare for visitors to break open roots tea, tea fins plaque inscribed to "forget their roots." More than twenty meters south monument built a memorial archway, carved banner of "Ka Shue Yan Yu", the other side engraved with "shelter to sentient beings." The early eighties, renovated and expanded Hongdong County locust Park
在这里还流传着一些有关迁徙的故事。辛亥革命后，袁世凯命山西巡抚张锡銮率卢永祥第三镇兵进攻山西革命军，所到之处肆意抢掠。Here are some related migration also spread the story. Revolution, Yuan ordered the governor of Shanxi Lu Yongxiang Zhang Xi Luan rate of the third attack on the town in Shanxi Revolutionary Army soldiers, wherever wanton looting.到洪洞后，士兵来到古大槐树处，纷纷下马罗拜，互相传言：“回到大槐树老家了。”不但没抢掠，而且将财物供施于大槐树下。大槐树“御灾抗患”之功为人们所称道。To Hongdong, the soldiers came to the ancient locust Department, have lower Marrow worship, another rumor: "Back to the home of the locust." Not only did not looting, but will impose on property for the next locust. Big Ash "anti-imperial disaster risk" of power for people to call Road.
传说当年移民时，官兵用刀在每人小趾甲上切一刀为记。至今凡大槐树移民后裔的小趾甲都是复形（两瓣）。“谁是古槐迁来人，脱履小趾验甲形。”你若有兴趣，不妨自我查看。Legend of the year when immigration officers and men with a knife in a small nail on each cut back to mind. Locust immigrant who has a small nail is complex (2). "Who is guhuai come to move, experience little toe off to fulfill a shape." You are interested, may wish to self-view.
当时，为防止移民逃跑，官兵把他们反绑，然后用一根长绳联结起来，押解着移民上路。人们一步一回头，大人们看着大槐树告诉小孩：“这里就是我们的老家，这就是我们的故乡。”至今移民后裔不论家住在何方何地，都说古大槐树处是自己的故乡。At that time, to prevent migration to escape, officers and soldiers they tied, and then link up with a long rope, to escort the immigrants journey. People step back a large locust tell people to look at children: "Here is our home, this is our home." Descendants of immigrants have lived in where no matter where, say locust is that the ancient home of their own .由于移民的手臂长时间捆着，胳膊逐渐麻木，不久也就习惯了，以后迁民们大多喜欢背着手走路，其后裔也沿袭了这种习惯。As the migration arm long tied up, arm numbness gradually, and soon get used to it, after moving most of the people who walk like hands behind their descendants also adopt this habit.
在押解过程中，由于长途跋涉，常有人要小便只好向官兵报告：“老爷，请解手，我要小便。”次数多了，这种口头的请求也趋于简单化，只要说声“老爷，我解手”，就都明白是要小便。此后“解手”便成了小便的代名词。In the escort process, because of long distances, often to the officers and soldiers who had to urinate report: "Master, please relieve themselves, I have to urinate." Several times, this also tends to simplify the request orally, as long as say, "Master, I relieve themselves, "they understand that it is to urine. Since then "relieve himself" became a synonym for urine
迁民到了新的居住地点，一片荒野，只好用自己辛勤的双手建屋造房，开荒种地，不论干什么，都会联想起故乡的山山水水。为了寄托对故乡的思念，大多在自己新居的院子里，大门口栽种槐树，以表对故乡的留恋和怀念之情。Move people to a new place of residence, a wilderness, had their hands hard flat houses, farming land reclamation, regardless of what, will think of the mountains and rivers home. For sustenance on nostalgia, mostly in their new home's yard, the gate acacia trees planted to form on the home of nostalgia and remembrance.有些移民到迁徙地后，以原籍命名村名，如北京郊区有赵城营、红铜（洪洞）营、蒲州营、长子营等，表明这些居民是当年从赵城、洪洞等地迁去的。After some migrants to move to in order to name the name of the village of origin, such as the suburb of Beijing City Chao Camp, copper (Hongdong) operators, Puzhou camp, the eldest son camps, show these people that year from Zhao City, Hongdong etc. move to the
祭祖小屋里贴着一张“古槐后裔姓氏表”，该表上共有四百五十姓，供奉着他们的牌位，这大大超过了百家姓。他们都是六百年前移民到全国各地的，经过搜集整理，公诸于墙，以便寻根查询。近年来，大陆民众竞修家谱，海外同胞寻根祭祖，纷纷查询自己同大槐树的血缘关系。Sacrifice a small room close to the "descendants of surnames guhuai table", the table on a total of 450 names, enshrines the memorial tablets of them, which greatly exceeds the Family Names. They were 600 years ago, immigrants across the country, and after collecting order, made public in the wall, so that roots inquiries. In recent years, the mainland people competing repair genealogy, overseas compatriots homage to their ancestors, have to check their blood relationship with the large japonica
悠悠六百年多年过去了，汉代古槐已不复存在，消失在历史的风尘之中，而同根孳生其旁的第三代槐树，则枝叶繁茂，充满活力。槐乡的后裔已遍布全国二十多个省，四百多个县，有的还远在南亚一些国家和地区。A lengthy six hundred years later, Han guhuai no longer exist, disappeared into history, eolian, and the same root and the third generation of breeding sites next to the acacia trees, the lush, full of energy. Huai village descendants all over the country more than 20 provinces, more than 400 counties, and some as far away as South Asian countries and regions.
遥想当年祖辈们扶老携幼，离乡背井，在频频回首遥望大槐树和老鸽窝时，洒下了多少伤心泪，愿大槐树与海内外同胞永远根连根，心连心。Way back when ancestors are young and old, from their homes, frequently looking back Looking to the locust and the old birds nest, the number of sad shed tears, like locust and compatriots at home and abroad will always root to root, heart to heart.